Epilepsy: Canine: Anticonvulsant Therapy

Epilepsy in dogs
Escaping dogs

Dogs on Diazepam, Phenobarbital, KBr and Prednisolone

Clorazepate dipotassium (Tranxene:Abbott) is a benzodiazepine pro-drug
2mg/kg q12
FORRESTER, S. DRU, D.V.M., M.S., DIP ACVIM ET AL

KBr 15mg/lb – 25mg/lb and even 45mg/lb
Loading – rapid control: A loading dose of 450-600 mg/kg, usually divided over 5 days,
If the patient appears obtunded prior to a dose, skip it and resume when the patient seems more normal.
Serum bromide level is checked. The therapeutic range for dogs is 0.7-3.5 mg/ml.
But decrease PBarb dose while going higher and higher.
the phenobarbital dosage should be no higher than 1-2 mg/lb/day or severe sedation
SISSON, ALLEN, D.V.M., M.S.

Monotherapy with oral KBr (administered without a loading dose) is recommended at 50-80 mg/kg/day as a starting dose may have to increase to 120 mg/kg/day in some dogs. The dosage is administered once a day, but the total dosage can be divided to avoid GI upset.
DEWEY, C.W., DVM, MS, DIP ACVIM ET AL.
Loading: the loading dose is 400-600 mg/kg total dose divided into equal treatments overthe next 36-48 hours. The loading dose is mixed in food to minimize vomiting/diarrhea.
HOSKINS, JOHNNY D., D.V.M., PH.D., DIP ACVIM

Sudden discontinuation of anticonvulsant medication can produce status epilepticus.

PBarb levels should be: are maintained between 15-45 micrograms/ml.

Consider measuring triglycerides: Hypertriglyceridemia should be considered in dogs with a history of seizures.
dietary therapy has been successful in reducing triglyceride concentrations and eliminating seizures
FORD, RICHARD B., D.V.M., M.S., DIP ACVIM

felbamate (Felbatol:Wallace Labs) 10kg animal is $22/month
45 mg/kg/day, PO, divided TID. The drug is well absorbed and the plasma elimination half-life is approximately 13 hours.
KORTZ, GREGG D., DVM, DIP ACVIM

Ketogenic diet: Protein and fat ONLY
Dr. John Freeman of Johns Hopkins

If neither phenobarbital or bromide are effective in treating seizures in the dog, mephenytoin (Mesantoin:Sandoz) – WITH the other drugs.
10 mg/kg, TID may be used with the dosage increased as needed to achieve a therapeutic blood level of nirvanol of 25-40 5g/ml. Steady state blood levels should be achieved in 6 days.
SISSON, ALLEN, D.V.M., M.S.

This clinical study found that ocular compression (OC) may be a useful aid for stimulating the vagus nerve to control seizures in dogs. The globe was intermittently compressed into the orbit, using digital pressure superior eyelid of one or both eyes for 10-60 seconds. Ocular compression was prescribed at 5 minute intervals,
SPECIALE, JOHN, DVM & JODY E., STAHLBRTODT, BS

Sodium valproate has recently shown some promise in the control of canine epilepsy. Its current recommended use is in combination with phenobarbital for resistant seizure dis- orders. The recommended dose of sodium valproate in the dog is 15 mg/kg/day. If the total dose exceeds 150 mg, it should be divided BID to avoid GI disturbance. The dose can be increased if necessary by 5 mg/kg/week to a maximum dose of 60 mg/kg/day.
SCOTT-MONCRIEFF, CATHARINE, VET MB & PETE BILL,DVM

DIAZEPAM AND SIEZURES:
For dogs and cats, diazepam has been recommended at a dose of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, IV, up to a maximum dose of 20 mg
PLATT, SIMON R., BVM&S & JOHN J. MCDONNELL, DVM

Enter your email address for a free PDF of this article including its images.

Enter your Email Address

My Favorite Amazon Recommendations

Items and content will not show in "Reader View" check your browser.

This is The LCD Screen Scope
We Did The Tutorial With. I did a twenty page tutorial (Here's the tutorial) with video, audio, images and even little parasite movies to show you how to use a microscope. 

This Filter is Good For BIG Dirty Tanks
I've been wrestling with water quality with the turtles. The sponges work GREAT, but in THOSE turtle systems where they eat MICE the poops are bulky. This filter can handle it. In "Tortu's" tank, it's got an 800 gph pump and it rocks. 

PraziPro for Flukes
They nailed it. Figured out the solubility and worked out the dosing. It works. 

Buy Some Good Koi?
No, this isn't really for the 'high end' collector y'all. But for someone who isn't near a decent garden center, here are "good-to-quite-good" Koi you will like at a very good price. I know these guys personally.

Best Food, Ever
It's made for (and I discovered it for) my Blood Parrots but the small size, intense color enhancers and excellent formulation make it superb young-Koi food. Oh, and it's AMAZING on color-cichlids like Flowerhorn and Blood Parrots. 

Pro Air 60 Aerator is a VERY high output air pump pushing my whole fish room (17+ drops), and I have one at home driving everything there, and I have one as a back up. 

Formalin Malachite (Not dilute)
There are formalin malachite preparations at 10%, 22% and 37%. There's economy in the concentrates. Hard to get Prime shipping because air transport is curtailed. This is a good value on 32 ounces. 

Topical For Koi and Pond Fish Ulcers
I like 7% tincture of iodine because it stains but it's hard to hurt anything with it. Used with a WOVEN gauze, this works well to clean and disinfect a wound. Only use ONCE. Do not 'repeatedly' scrub wounds. 

Confectioner's Glaze 
Is the way to bind a medication to fish food. Gone are the days of paste food and oil. The write up is done, it's RIGHT HERE.

Koi Health & Disease
Hopefully this link takes you to the newest edition by PRIME to get it to your house the fastest. 

I have over ten of these Titanium Heaters in my fish room and at home. They're a paradigm shift in aquarium heating. They're titanium and 400W for under $30! Whaaaaaaaaat?

CyroPro by Hikari is safe and easy for Anchor Worms and Fish Lice.

Whatever heaters you use, back yourself up with a temperature controller, it'll turn on, and off your heaters. If your heater seizes "on" at least the thermostat will stop a tragedy. 

LifeGuard by Tetra is a tablet version of a tame 'chloramine-t' or 'halamid' compound that's easy to get and good on bacterial infections, in baths. 

Antimicrobial
If you're making medicated feed for a larger group of fish, this will come in handy. Dosing is available in the site. 

For me, filtration-of-choice
For aquariums, even small Koi holding facilities or small ponds. These sponge filters are cheap, easy to clean, and they clear hazes very well when used with some Accuclear or similar.

Rubber sided, round, nettable tanks
Make great hospital or quarantine facilities. They SHOULD cost about $200-300 depending on size, but this, lower quality unit (while panned in some reviews) may be good. Don't overfill and make sure it's propped up.

1200 Watt heater, on a thermostat held securely above the waterline, works GREAT as a large tank heater. That's all I'll say because there's risk of electrocution and all that. But then, even in a bucket you could get killed. Sound like fun?
I have several of these ALLIED PRECISION stainless ones that are a couple years old. Working still. 

Potassium Permanganate 
500 grams could be a lifetime supply but it's 50% more than the 100g cost wise, for 500% more amount. Dosing is in the site and the book.

What Does Ajax Eat?
I looked for something well formulated, with meat as the first ingredient. Something UNDER $2/lb and something they could deliver for free. And this was it. He looks and feels great on it.