Category Archives: Treatments

Praziquantel Doesn’t Work Anymore Against Flukes?

“I am a keeper of koi fish and Dr. Johnson has been so helpful to me in understanding koi health and disease. I have been using Praziquantel for a number of years to treat flukes. Recently, a friend forwarded me a comment made on Koiphen saying that Prazi was no longer effective against flukes and that Fluke-M was the new treatment of choice. Does Doc Johnson have an opinion on this? Thanks for any clarification you can bring to this matter!”

The core, active ingredient in Kusuri has been around longer than I’ve been in the hobby, and I started in 1993. It’s spectrum against flukes and intestinal parasites is handsome. Figuring out safe dosing and verifying results enough to come up with a product for the market is worthy of salute.

Here’s Kusuri Fluke-M on its web site at the moment

Here’s a Praziquantel that works every time

Results will change however, when somebody goes to market against Kusuri with a knockoff of the same compound but generic dosing instructions. Then someone will say “Kusuri doesn’t work anymore.”

That seems to be what’s happening with Praziquantel and I’ll get to that later.

From their sales material:

Kusuri Fluke-M contains 50mg/g Flubendazole based

(Supaverm had Febantel “immediate cousin”plus Closantel in it but was lethal to goldfish)

…medication used to eradicate Gill and Body Flukes. This treatment is safe to use without destroying the bacteria in the filter and can be used at any temperature. While dosing with Fluke M you can continue to feed.
This product is designed as a one off treatment, but may require a second dose after 7 days in heavy infestation.

Gill flukes lay eggs and will be harder for any medication to clear because the eggs can’t be killed on the bottom of the pond. So the Praziquantel AND the Kusuri “sometimes” require a subsequent dose to intercept the upcoming egg hatchlings. This is the reason this product says “may require” because if you happen to be dealing with gill flukes, you’ll need to.

For use with all cold water ornamental fish and can be used safely with all tropical freshwater fish.
Kusuri Fluke-M has a four year shelf life from date of manufacture and should be used within three months of opening. Fluke-M can also be used for the eradication of pond snails (##) and Intestinal Helminths Worms.

I would not have guessed it would kill snails. That’s kind of an exciting discovery, as Koi breeders and certain others in the industry consider snails a nuisance, especially in Florida where they’re a vector for certain parasites transmitted by wading birds (Neascus)

For best results use above 15°C. At 10°C a second dose may be required.
Please ensure that you read, understand and follow, all Health and Safety guidelines on the packet.
If the mucus layer is excessive, we advise dosing with Chloramine T at 15g per 1000 gallons, 24 hours before using Fluke M, this will assist in reducing the mucus membrane where body flukes can sometimes get trapped.

This is an interesting note – -because Chloramine-T is also a treatment for flukes. 

Caution: Please check your pH and KH prior to using. Chloramine T can be very toxic in soft water. If your pH is below pH7 (acid) and has a general hardness below 6°dH (soft water) reduce the dose by 75%. Fluke M is safe to use with salt.
Dosage: 11.8g per 1000 gallons (4546 Litres) of pond water.
For best results use above 15°C.
Directions: Shake contents of the sachet well. Measure out the correct dose for pond, and dissolve in a container with boiling water

I plan to engage some testing on a similar compound called Levamisole on behalf of a Koi breeder, which should have a similar spectrum to Febendazole (sister compounds) and I plan to solublize in ethanol. I wonder if Kusuri would solublize in ethanol? So much easier. I wonder if the manufacturer tried it?

Stir and allow the mixture to cool before adding slowly to the return of the pond over a 1 hour period. It is recommended that you turn off the UV(##). Fluke-M is safe to use with salt.
This product is designed as a one off treatment, but may require a second dose after 7 days in heavy infestation.

What about Praziquantel not working anymore?

First, people say “always” and “never” crap like that. It’s ridiculous. They MEAN “Praziquantel doesn’t work as much for ME anymore and I’ve treated a LOT of cases and confirmed what I’m asserting with my talent with microscopes, [which the person can’t say either, making them an ass hat.]

Praziquantel

The KEY to Prazipro from Hikari is THOROUGH shaking and application to the system WITHOUT filtration and WHILE it’s still crazy-agitated.

Has been produced and provided to the Koi and pond fish industry for an easy 10 years. When it first came out it was tablets from the vet and impossibly expensive. Then some folks came out with it in a liquid and powder form, and solubilized it a variety of ways. Purity and concentration varies drastically and now, non-business people can buy a kilo of “Praziquantel” on line for a reasonable sum.

The purity of that bulk powder is impossible to confirm.

Purity is “probably great” though, but dosing must be carefully done to make sure you’re using ENOUGH and that’s not ‘easy’. If you’re having trouble all-of-a-sudden with “Praziquantel not working” anymore, check your product and dose because with PraziPro there’s no problem in my hands. I’m no genius.

Water conditions and circulation matter as well. If you don’t solublize the Praziquantel correctly and distribution around the pond is incomplete, and if there’s a lot of organics in the system to hide the Flukes and bind the chemical.
System organics play a role in both medications’ distribution and survival in the water column.
Intercepting eggs hatching later is the BIGGEST factor.

Solubility with both Kusuri and Praziquantel is huge

It has become almost common place, for people to buy Praziquantel powder (raw) and attempt to solubilize it and does it correctly which IS NOT EASY. The savings, I suppose are great. But mistakes and inadequacies happen.

A product called PraziPro put together by Hikari has worked around the solubilty issues, and I’ve used it, and confirmed kills in Flukes of both species. The key is the SUBSEQUENT dosing also recommended by Kururi. They’re on the right track with that.

In many instances, in the broader perspective, the whole conversation is moot, because formalin/malachite green are such a good broad-spectrum medication, dosed properly in water of a reasonable temperature and properly aerated, using an expensive single spectrum drug like Praziquantel or Flubendazole is just additional legwork.

In systems of any considerable size, the conversation Tails to exist separating single spectrum drugs because both Praziquantel and Flubendazole would become prohibitively expensive. So, by and large the considerations go to treating flukes specifically, in smaller systems. I would expect properly researched products with a proven track record like PraziPro, to work on par with Kusuri Fluke-M

Someone going in with a homemade version of Kusuri, or a homemade mixture of PraziPro may have different results. And then they’ll pronounce the compound ‘useless‘.

It is frustrating when someone in the hobby says that “this particular widget doesn’t work anymore”. Especially if it is intended to sell more of another widget. Because parasites don’t suddenly become globally resistant to something just because a couple of people are having trouble or think they’re having trouble dealing with a parasite with one particular medication. But blanket statements are made. It is human nature.

I have talked to a couple of very credible people who double check their results with a microscope and have heard that there are certain strains of flukes, particularly the egg laying ones, that may resist Praziquantel. After talking to a few of these people, we realized that there were consistencies between dosing and water quality as well as the egg-laying (Gyrodactylus) nature of a particular species of flukes that made Praziquantel less effective for those people but more effective for others.
The last five times I’ve treated flukes, I used Clout twice, formalini/malachite on two occasions, and PraziPro from Hikari on the fifth occasion, and got clearance with each of those medications respectively.

The Kusuri product utilizes a flubendazole dewormer that could have been expected to be very effective. I am sure that there are individuals who have used it, and then confirmed their kill with microscopes. I would love to believe that individuals who assert that it’s amazing have all confirmed their kills As opposed to the fish just getting better.

There was a similar product called Supaverm they used one of the same ingredients but because of another ingredient (Closantel), it was terminal for Goldfish. Ultimately it faded from view as Praziquantel took over the market. Sometimes would still be nice to have it in case you wanted to get rid of all your goldfish and just keep Koi LOL

I said all that to say this, if you treat with Praziquantel at the proper dose, properly dissolved, in a clean system with a middle of the road alkalinity, making sure to jump back in and treat on day five and/or seven, you’re going to get repeatably remarkable results.

Deviations from the above contribute largely to the reason behind finding flukes 10 to 14 days after you treated with project Cuanto.

I am sure that if you treat with Kusuri according to label instructions, which are admirably specific, using their specific compound, you’re going to get excellent results as well. But the same thing is going to happen to their product as happened to Praziquantel: more people will come to market with that compound, they will use generic dosing, they will be much less specific with dosing instructions, they’ll just push it out there, and it won’t work as well as when you were using a specific product with the specific instructions that went with it.

The hobbyist is encouraged to develop a skepticism of people who say always, and never. I recall when there was a “expert“ walking around that said “Baytril (injection / antibiotic) never works anymore“ and yet, still popping up on sensitivity lists to this day and an excellent drug. Problem is, it doesn’t work in every case, but that doesn’t stop some people from commenting on things like every case is the same..

It’s true, that the more you know about fish health, and fish medicine, the more you realize that you don’t know.

Constant Salt In The Pond: Please Don’t.

I was browsing for a salt document and I found a web site with someone who should know better, recommending that people salt their ponds all the time, to maintain a moderate 0.1% solution of salt all the time.

Not a good idea.

Fish and plants don’t ‘thrive’ that way. Your fish could be doing “okay” with salt all-the-time, but they’d be doing better and more vigorously without it. Besides, parasites get used to it.

Making Dechlorinator – Sodium thiosulfate

How should I make a good dechlorinating solution? I have read about some pretty high doses, like 250 grams in 500ml of water to make a stock solution.
A: First, let’s tell our reader how to get dechlorinating granules, Sodium Thiosulfate:

See below for link to find like, 5 pounds of sodium thiosulfate for overnight delivery.

If you put 130 grams in a liter jug, then add water quantity sufficient to make 1 liter, your stock solution will contain 130 grams/Liter.

Each teaspoonful [5 cc] will contain 650mg active Sodium Thiosulfate. This is a 13% solution.
Simply add 2 drops of the stock solution per 1 gallon of the body of water to be treated . One liter of your solution can treat 10,000 gallons. Over-dosage is virtually impossible.

Another method with the same results is to put 500 grams in a gallon jug, q.s. to 1 gallon then you have the same 650mg per tsp. [13% solution] Add 2 drops of the stock solution per gallon.
One gallon can treat 37,850 gallons or more. 

Why you need dechlorinator (Click)

Making Dechlorinator – Sodium thiosulfate

 

A Topical For Bacterial Sores or Ulcer Disease in Koi

A Topical For Bacterial Sores or Ulcer Disease in Koi

With bacterial sores, one of the key elements is killing ALL the germs in the area. removing as much dead tissue and grossness as possible in ONE PASS and leaving something disinfectant in the vicinity as long as the water will let it stay. That seems to require a “stain” like Mercurochrome or similar.

Except Mercurochrome is pretty much straight-up mercury and good luck getting that (You can, lol – just click here).

An old standby for me is Iodine. But you need an aggressive staining iodine and you need to be able to get it ON a wound while getting dead-stuff OFF the wound.

Enter, Tincture of Iodine, 7% – 10% very strong.

And WOVEN gauze sponges. (See below) Most of what you find these days are “non woven” because they are considerably softer and MORE ABSORBENT. Finding “woven” gauze is kind of hard these days.

Ulcer disease in Koi debridement wounds iodine
^ Where to buy: WOVEN gauze sponges.

But when you’re debriding a Koi or other fish wound, you don’t care about absorbent, you need a “gentle roughness” for scrubbing. Not scrubbing, more like, rubbing. Kind of rubbing, but mainly “removing” dead stuff and “stopping while you’re ahead”.

You get the idea from the above that it’s a “finesse” sort of “experience” thing.

A Topical For Bacterial Sores or Ulcer Disease in Koi

Tincture of Iodine is available in several strengths. I used to buy the two-percent solution off the shelf at the drug store, but I felt like I needed something stronger. So I inquired of my local pharmacist and he supplied me with a seven-percent solution, which is fabulous for wound cleaning. Care must be taken to avoid using it near the gill. It may run under the gill cover and damage gill tissue. Fish hate that. ‘Really.

Tincture of Iodine will stain you severely, but does not ‘hurt’ the skin. It could do serious eye damage and so I must recommend that you wear protective eyewear. If this compound gets on the cornea of the fish, it will be of no consequence, as the cornea of the fish seems able to withstand this compound easily.

Use of this and almost any other topical should be limited to a single use. Once the wound has stopped bleeding, seems less red, and the edges seem to be ‘organizing’ into a thick white rim, do NOT re-apply any topical. You will disrupt the necessary migration of epithelial cells across the wound. This is the only way that large sores will heal. If you’re doing daily scrubs on the wounds, they cannot heal. A vicious cycle is propagated.

Salt Dosing Journal for Ich or White Spot – A Case

Salt is the greatest bath treatment of all time. This would have to be one of the single, uncontested assertions made in this website. Salt is both tonic to fish and toxic to parasite. It’s got a wide spectrum encompassing most of the ciliated protozoans and it can offset the negative effects of some water quality derangements such as Nitrite accumulation.

Salt can occur in numerous forms. The first salt I ever used was from the pet shop and cost quite a bit. It worked very well. It must have been very special. Perhaps distilled from the tears of Hawaiian orphans.

Many folks have used Kosher Salt, Water Softener salts, “Solar” salt, rock salt, Sea Salt, Ice Cream Salt, Synthetic Reef Salt (Instant Ocean®) Non-mineralized Salt blocks for cows, and table salt. Results with all of these have been excellent with the following notes: Sea Salt is rich in carbonates and will raise Total Alkalinity and pH which may be undesirable if there is a significant Ammonia accumulation or your fish are adapted to an acidic pH. Cow Salt Blocks occur in a mineralized format, rich in Magnesium and other minerals. You’ll kill your fish unless the salt lick is 99.9% pure salt without trace minerals. Make sure the label indicates the salt is not trace mineralized and that the salt is 99.97% NaCl.

No salt should contain Yellow Prussiate of Soda, or YPS. Another anti-caking agent contains cyanuric acid. Avoid this as well. The salt should contain no Iodine because while this will have no negative effect on the fish, it may damage beneficial bacteria.

Why is Iodine bad? Well, a hundred years ago when I first started using salt, I’d add it “all at once” and that caused osmotic ‘shock’ to the nitrifying bacteria and we’d see a pulse in nitrogen. I assumed it was the Iodine. That’s what I published. That misinformation’s hanging around to this day. My bad. Sorry.

Why is Yellow Prussiate of Soda “Bad?” Well, I didn’t know where that got started. I just read that. And a LOT of the time, the YPS didn’t matter so I started to think, “Ehhh who cares?”   but then something happened up in Tennessee that made me consult a chemist. A mess of fish got sicker and sicker with YPS salt being used. Why?

It turns out that YPS (Yellow Prussiate of Soda) turns into “Prussic Acid” in water. And normally that gets neutralized by carbonates in the water. But if there aren’t enough carbonates, the pH becomes acidic and can hurt the fish. So what I learned was: In hard water, YPS Salt is fine. In soft, low carbonate rich water, YPS can burn the fish. Or crash the pH.

On the other hand, the desiccant Sodium Alumino-silicate is just fine.

Salt for use against ick or ich white spot
Salt for use against ick or ich white spot

Salt Dosing Journal for Ich or White Spot

Indications for the use of salt include the elimination of parasitisms caused by vulnerable ciliated protozoan parasites, curbing the absorption of Nitrite, and reducing the osmotic pressure exerted by fresh water on any hole in the skin or gill.

Salt also makes popcorn taste great, and it melts the snow on your driveway in winter.

Dosing salt is usually simple.

The dose for 0.3% solutions is 1 tablespoon per gallon. This is the amount used for most protozoan parasitisms

The dose for 0.6% solutions is 2 tablespoons per gallon. This is the dose for salt resistant Trichodina and Costia. Dosing variations exist based on live plants, volume of the water, what parasite is targeted and what species of fish are involved.

The dose for 0.9% solutions (common in German texts) is 3 tablespoons per gallon.

First, you must remove any live plants of value from the aquarium.

  1. Perform a significant percentage water change before starting, because you will want to avoid water changes if possible after salting in order to maintain a stable concentration.
  2. At the zero hour” add one third of the total dose after pre-dissolving it in a small bucket of water.
  3. Wait twelve hours while the fish acclimate.
  4. Then apply the second ‘third’ of the salt dose, after pre-dissolving it.
  5. Twelve hours after that, you’ll apply the last ‘third’ of the total dose. The whole amount has been added over twenty four hours, and there will be nominal effect on the fish or filter.

Let’s work as example to keep folks out of trouble:

This fellow, whose name is Vino DePascagliatelli (he’s fictitious but the name is fun to say fast) has a fifty-five gallon fish tank full of fine Chinese Ranchu. (He never went for those big ugly-headed Orandas). Anyway, his fish break with Ich because he bought a new fish from an otherwise reputable dealer and did not quarantine it. The Ich is obvious because the fish have white spots all over their fins and bodies. So he checks out this book and quickly figures up his total dose of salt.

0.3% represents one tablespoon per gallon.

He has a fifty-five gallon tank and the fish are stable, so he figures the dose into “thirds” for gradual addition. That would be 18.3 tablespoons every twelve hours.

It’s ten o’clock by the time he gets home with the salt. He bought So-Lo® brand rock salt with Yellow Prussiate of Soda. He’s just about to burn his fish when his wife notices it: “Vino, Vino!! Oh my Gawd, Vino lookit he-ah! Lookie! Doc Johnsin’s book says not ta’ use no salt wit Yella’ Prussiate uh Soda in it!”

Vino grabs his receipt and runs down to the local mart, and exchanges the salt for Dandy® brand, which has Sodium Alumino-silicate as its anti-caking agent. This is fine.

He gets home just in time to meet his wife at the door. She’s going to get lunch with her friend Maria, and she still has curlers still in her hair.

He checks his watch. It’s noon. Vino adds 18 tablespoons of salt. When it dissolves it leaves a little sand on the glass bottom of his tank. No big deal.

“Docta Johnson din’t say nuttin’ ’bout no sand bein’ left behind in da tank”. He’s a little miffed but he ignores it, as he should.

Twelve hours later, at midnight, his wife wakes him up.

“Dincha’ hafta add some mowa salt ta ‘dat fish tank ovah daya?”

“Jeez Stella, ‘tanks fer wakin’ me up, I almast fa-got!” Vino rubs his eyes and applies another 18 tablespoons of salt to the tank. He goes back to bed. Stella still has the curlers in her hair.

It’s noon the next day when Vino walks over to the tank. (Well, Vino kind of struts like a large chicken, and he has a gigantic pompadour, but that’s another story). He leans down and notices the fish are perkier. The spots are still there, but he’s a trusting fellow. So he adds his last eighteen tablespoons and sits down to read the paper.

That night, Stella is counting all the white spots.

“One thousand eight hunnid and ninety seven! Vino! They’re goin’ away! Yestaday dare wuz two ‘tousand five hunnid and toidy!”

Vino puts his head in his hands. She starts counting the white spots all over again.

Forty eight hours later, she is counting the white spots again. She still has curlers in her hair.

“Jeez, Stella, are we gonna go to some kinda big Poddy at da end ah da munt? Whatcha wearin’ ‘dem ‘coilas fa?”

“Oh shut up, Vino!” she retorts. “I shou’nt tell ya dis, ’cause yer bein’ such a goombah, but, doze Ick bugs is all gone away!”

Vino jumps up and looks. Within about 72 hours after the last salt dose, at seventy-four degrees oF all of the Ich cysts have vanished from the skin. He leaves the salt in for ten more days just to be on the safe side. Later that week he wins the New York Lotto and sends Dr. Johnson a new Lincoln Town Car for all his careful advice in this great book.

If the fish are dying off quickly, it is advisable to add the salt dose all at once. This may have a negative impact on filter bacteria but may be life saving in the case of Chilodonella, Costia or even Ich in smaller fishes.

Is it possible to apply too much salt?

Well, it would be hard to do since Koi, goldfish and pond fish can handle high salinity. They will survive salt levels up to 0.9% and higher. However, this should be recognized as a stressful salt level and only used when absolutely necessary. Small, weak fish would do their best at 0.3% with observation. “Not Worse” is a good result. If the fish are ‘hanging in there’ after a day or two, then you can climb to 0.6% without losses.

This is a Koi, goldfish and pond fish health book but many people keep tropical fish with their Koi, goldfish and pond fish. Several species of catfish are negatively affected by salt. Er, well, that means they may stop breathing, severe stiffness results and they are not as entertaining to watch anymore. Examples of these fish would be wild caught Brokis britskii catfish, some wild caught Corydoras species, Rafael cats, Ramirez cichlids, and Rasboras. There are other sensitive tropical barbs, so any fish you are not sure of should be removed before treatment.

Salt Dosing Journal for Ich or White Spot

Air Sac Pneumocentesis

Air Sac Pneumocentesis

Air Sac Pneumocentesis is an important part of the management of Floater Syndrome wherein a fish becomes inverted and floats helplessly on the surface. Many factors contribute to this condition but the most common denominator is a proportional correlation (relationship) between higher Nitrate levels in the system and higher incidence of “Floater” and “Flipover” in the collection.

Floaters should be ‘reduced’ by a procedure called Air Sac Pneumocentesis. In this process, the air sac is defined within the body of the fish and is drained of air without risk to any important vascular structure or digestive entity.

A sterile 22-gauge needle on a 3-ml syringe is used to extract the air, but hitting the air sac without damaging another structure is of paramount importance. The needle is introduced perpendicular (90o) to the side of the fish to a depth of approximately half the fishes’ thickness. If you cannot pull back on the syringe’s plunger, you are NOT in the airsac. It is almost impossible to miss the air sac when you use the following landmarks.

Air Sac Pneumocentesis
Air Sac Pneumocentesis

The anatomical landmarks in Goldfish are as follows:

  • Longitudinally [vertically] you can define your landmarks by observation of the first ray of the dorsal fin. Coming straight down the side of the fish from this ray to the pelvic fins, you define your vertical axis.
  • Latitudinally, [horizontally] you come across at a point in line with the eye and slightly below the lateral line where it crosses your vertical axis.
  • Insert the needle at this intersection and withdraw as much air as you can. In large fish, 3-6 ml of air can be expected.

The fish will have lost all its buoyancy when returned to the tank. The fish will set on the bottom of the tank lethargically. There should be very little bleeding from the needle stick.

After Air Sac Pneumocentesis

If the fish is still inverted, give it time. The air sac will usually refill within twenty-four hours. If the fish refills completely, it will be floating upside down again the following morning. Hopefully, the fish will not refill completely and will be swimming normally the following day. Some people are putting Baytril injectable into the air bladders after they’re emptied.

If the case resists this treatment and returns to an overly buoyant and inverted condition, you will need to repeat the Air Sac Pneumocentesis and then perform and Quartz Implant Coeleotomy.

Twenty Steps E-Book – Free – Read it Online

I’m also going to make this readable e-book available in print format but you can also read it online. It’s just 14 pages and there aren’t images. It’s succinct and updated per 2019

What you’ll see is a book(let) that steps you through the “process” I’d actually engage on a house-call to your pond if you called me. Twenty assessments

Click the picture of the book below, and you’ll be whisked to the online, readable version. Bookmark it for later this year, in the Spring if your fish get sick.

What’s Wrong With My Koi Fish?

What Is In Each Video? Table of Contents: Twenty Koi Health Video Tutorial

  1. Handling Stress -Have the fish been handled recently? Why that matters.
  2. Winter Stress -Temperature. Is it winter? Summer? Why that matters
  3. Feeding or Underfeeding – Feeding and Underfeeding. Why that matters.
  4. Ammonia Toxicity -Ammonia and it’s super common, why it matters and what it looks like.
  5. Nitrite Poisoning -Nitrites and what THAT looks like, why it matters and what to do about it.
  6. Nitrate Poisoning  –NitrAtes –  especially common fish killer / weakener in established pond.
  7. pH Explained -pH is the most common deadly water quality parameter to check. Crash discussed.
  8. Oxygen Levels – Oxygen levels. Why it might sag, impact of heat and plants, what to do about it.
  9. CrowdingCrowding. How many is too many. What does that do to fish?
  10. Still and StaleWater movement and turnover. Common. Stale, still water. Fish weakener.
  11. MetabolismTemperature; it’s influence, it’s pitfalls, the ideals for fish recovery
  12. InjuriesCuts and bruises. Is that an ulcer, or a gash? How can you tell. When and if you treat.
  13. Cleanliness Cleanliness – Is the pond clean? Properly maintained? Can fish recover in unclean ponds?
  14. Germs & MicrobesBacterial infections – a usually unnecessary video because 90% of people have figured out the source of a disease is in their water quality and husbandry. Injections, treatments, etc all discussed.
  15. FungusFungal infections, you’d be surprised the cause, and the treatment (or lack thereof)
  16. Bugs & CrittersThe Parasites, this is pretty common. What you need to know about them, and their treatment.
  17. Viruses like KHVViral diseases, like Koi Herpes virus and some of the skin-viruses that cause warts.
  18. Video 18 –> No video 18 lol
  19. QuarantineQuarantine. If you did it, then the list gets shorter. If you didn’t do it, (and how to do it) the field remains very wide.
  20. Further ResourcesResources for more help, diagnostics, fish vets who still do it.

What's Wrong With My Koi Fish

What’s Wrong With My Koi Fish?

For folks who don’t really want to mess with information, just adding stuff to get fish to live. Six things you add. Really sarcastic. But it works.