Humans May Contract Aeromonas Infections From Koi and Pond Fish

From: http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001628.htm

May 25, 1990 / 39(20);334-335,341

Aeromonas Wound Infections Associated with Outdoor Activities — California

Aeromonas species are associated with gastroenteritis and with wound infections, particularly wounds incurred in outdoor settings. On May 1, 1988, isolates of Aeromonas became reportable in California, the first state to mandate reporting of isolates of and infections with these organisms. Surveillance data for 1988 and 1989 represent the first population-based estimates of both the occurrence and public health impact of Aeromonas infections in the United States and provide a basis for assessing the need for further surveillance of these organisms.

From May 1, 1988, through April 30, 1989, clinicians and clinical laboratories in California reported 225 Aeromonas isolates from 219 patients. Cases were reported on Confidential Morbidity Report cards to local health departments, which then conducted case investigations and forwarded their reports to the California Department of Health Services. Of the 225 isolates, 178 (79.1%) were recovered from stool, 19 (8.4%) from wounds, 11 (4.9%) from blood, and 17 (7.6%) from other sites. A. caviae was recovered from seven stool cultures; A. sobria was recovered from two stool cultures and one vaginal culture. All other cultures were reported as A. hydrophila or Aeromonas unspecified.

Based on reported cases, the incidence of Aeromonas wound infections in California was 0.7 per million population. Of the 19 patients with wound infections, 13 were injured outdoors (Table 1). Six of these patients required hospitalization for their injuries and/or infections. One patient had a mixed infection including Aeromonas, Proteus, and Pseudomonas species. The number of infections peaked in the summer months with three cases each in July and August. The cases reported among persons aged 30-39 years represented the highest incidence rate for all age groups (1.4 per million). Reported by: SB Werner, MD, Infectious Disease Br, GW Rutherford, III, MD, State Epidemiologist, California Dept of Health Svcs. Div of Field Svcs, Epidemiology Program Office; Enteric Diseases Br, Div of Bacterial Diseases, and Epidemiology Br, Hospital Infections Program, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.

Editorial Note

Editorial Note: Aeromonas species are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria found in soil and fresh and brackish water worldwide (1). Although Aeromonas species were recognized in 1891 as colonizers and pathogens of cold-blooded animals, especially fish (2), they were not identified as human pathogens until 1968 (3). Since then, they have been associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases (especially in immunocompromised patients), most commonly gastroenteritis (4) and soft tissue infections (5).

The taxonomy of Aeromonas species requires further clarification. Three species, A. hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. caviae, have been associated with human disease (4), but DNA hybridization analyses support seven or more distinct genotypes (6). Because many clinical laboratories are unable to perform precise identification, many aeromonad isolates are reported as A. hydrophila or A. hydrophila complex. Although the California surveillance data provide limited information about the morbidity of the wound infections reported, they suggest that the public health impact of these soft tissue infections is low and may be determined more by the nature of the underlying injury than by the presence of Aeromonas organisms.

The California data do not provide information on case management. However, one reported case series (7) suggests that surgical debridement is an important component of treatment and has enabled resolution of the infection when either no antibiotics or ineffective antibiotics (i.e., antibiotics to which the organisms were resistant) were used. These findings, as well as the occurrence of Aeromonas organisms in mixed infections, suggest that in some cases Aeromonas species may be colonizers in wounds rather than pathogens.

 

References

Von Graevenitz A. Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In: Lennette EH, Ballows A, Hausler WJ, Shadomy HJ, ed. Manual of clinical microbiology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1985:278-81.

Ewing WH, Hugh R, Johnson JG. Studies on the Aeromonas group. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Communicable Disease Center, 1961.

Von Graevenitz A, Mensch AH. The genus Aeromonas in human bacteriology: report of 30 cases and review of the literature. N Engl J Med 1968;278:245-9.

Holmberg SD, Schell WL, Fanning GR, et al. Aeromonas intestinal infections in the United States. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:683-9.

Janda JM, Duffey PS. Mesophilic Aeromonads in human disease: current taxonomy, labo ratory identification and infectious disease spectrum. Rev Infect Dis 1988;10:980-97.

Popoff MY, Coynault C, Kiredjian M, Lemelin M. Polynucleotide sequence relatedness among motile Aeromonas species. Curr Microbiol 1981;5:109-14.

Isaacs RD, Paviour SD, Bunker DE, Land SDR. Wound infection with aerogenic Aeromonas strains: a review of twenty-seven cases. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1988;7:355-60.

Enter your email address for a free PDF of this article including its images.

Enter your Email Address

My Favorite Amazon Recommendations

Items and content will not show in "Reader View" check your browser.

This is The LCD Screen Scope
We Did The Tutorial With. I did a twenty page tutorial (Here's the tutorial) with video, audio, images and even little parasite movies to show you how to use a microscope. 

This Filter is Good For BIG Dirty Tanks
I've been wrestling with water quality with the turtles. The sponges work GREAT, but in THOSE turtle systems where they eat MICE the poops are bulky. This filter can handle it. In "Tortu's" tank, it's got an 800 gph pump and it rocks. 

PraziPro for Flukes
They nailed it. Figured out the solubility and worked out the dosing. It works. 

Buy Some Good Koi?
No, this isn't really for the 'high end' collector y'all. But for someone who isn't near a decent garden center, here are "good-to-quite-good" Koi you will like at a very good price. I know these guys personally.

Best Food, Ever
It's made for (and I discovered it for) my Blood Parrots but the small size, intense color enhancers and excellent formulation make it superb young-Koi food. Oh, and it's AMAZING on color-cichlids like Flowerhorn and Blood Parrots. 

Pro Air 60 Aerator is a VERY high output air pump pushing my whole fish room (17+ drops), and I have one at home driving everything there, and I have one as a back up. 

Formalin Malachite (Not dilute)
There are formalin malachite preparations at 10%, 22% and 37%. There's economy in the concentrates. Hard to get Prime shipping because air transport is curtailed. This is a good value on 32 ounces. 

Topical For Koi and Pond Fish Ulcers
I like 7% tincture of iodine because it stains but it's hard to hurt anything with it. Used with a WOVEN gauze, this works well to clean and disinfect a wound. Only use ONCE. Do not 'repeatedly' scrub wounds. 

Confectioner's Glaze 
Is the way to bind a medication to fish food. Gone are the days of paste food and oil. The write up is done, it's RIGHT HERE.

Koi Health & Disease
Hopefully this link takes you to the newest edition by PRIME to get it to your house the fastest. 

I have over ten of these Titanium Heaters in my fish room and at home. They're a paradigm shift in aquarium heating. They're titanium and 400W for under $30! Whaaaaaaaaat?

CyroPro by Hikari is safe and easy for Anchor Worms and Fish Lice.

Whatever heaters you use, back yourself up with a temperature controller, it'll turn on, and off your heaters. If your heater seizes "on" at least the thermostat will stop a tragedy. 

LifeGuard by Tetra is a tablet version of a tame 'chloramine-t' or 'halamid' compound that's easy to get and good on bacterial infections, in baths. 

Antimicrobial
If you're making medicated feed for a larger group of fish, this will come in handy. Dosing is available in the site. 

For me, filtration-of-choice
For aquariums, even small Koi holding facilities or small ponds. These sponge filters are cheap, easy to clean, and they clear hazes very well when used with some Accuclear or similar.

Rubber sided, round, nettable tanks
Make great hospital or quarantine facilities. They SHOULD cost about $200-300 depending on size, but this, lower quality unit (while panned in some reviews) may be good. Don't overfill and make sure it's propped up.

1200 Watt heater, on a thermostat held securely above the waterline, works GREAT as a large tank heater. That's all I'll say because there's risk of electrocution and all that. But then, even in a bucket you could get killed. Sound like fun?
I have several of these ALLIED PRECISION stainless ones that are a couple years old. Working still. 

Potassium Permanganate 
500 grams could be a lifetime supply but it's 50% more than the 100g cost wise, for 500% more amount. Dosing is in the site and the book.

What Does Ajax Eat?
I looked for something well formulated, with meat as the first ingredient. Something UNDER $2/lb and something they could deliver for free. And this was it. He looks and feels great on it.