Bromethalin Poisoning in Dogs, Cats – Neurotoxin for Rats

Download:  Bromethalin – Toxicology – Merck Veterinary Manual

Bromethalin, a nonanticoagulant, single-dose rodenticide, is a neurotoxin available as bars (blocks), pellets, seed, and a fake worm you can give to Moles.
The net result is cerebral and spinal edema and increased CSF pressure, leading to neurologic dysfunction.
Bromethalin can cause either an acute or a subacute/chronic syndrome, depending on the dose ingested. At doses equivalent to or more than the average lethal dose, dogs may develop an acute convulsant (or high-dose) syndrome resulting in clinical signs within 4–36 hr of exposure; such signs include hyperexcitability, muscle tremors, grand mal seizures, hindlimb hyperreflexia, CNS depression, hyperthermia, and death. The paralytic (subacute or chronic) syndrome is seen at lower doses, and clinical signs may not appear for several days (up to 7 days) after exposure. Initial signs may include depression, hindlimb weakness or paresis, decreased propioception, ataxia, and possible tremors. Muscle weakness often progresses from posterior to anterior muscles. Cats typically develop paralytic syndrome irrespective of dose of bromethalin.

Sourcehttps://www.merckvetmanual.com/toxicology/rodenticide-poisoning/bromethalin

Based on the history of exposure, bromethalin toxicosis should be considered when there is moderate to acute onset of weakness, hindlimb paralysis, tremors, and seizures. Some other toxicologic and nontoxicologic differential diagnoses should include ethylene glycol toxicosis, marijuana ingestion, 2,4-D and other phenoxyacetic acid herbicide toxicosis, copper head snake envenomation (cats), intervertebral disc problems, spinal cord and CNS trauma, and tick paralysis.

The following can be used as a guideline to treat bromethalin exposure in dogs and cats:

At a bromethalin dosage of 0.1–0.49 mg/kg in dogs, or 0.05-0.1 mg/kg in cats, emesis alone within 4 hr of exposure may be adequate. If emesis is not successful, or if > 4 hr have elapsed since ingestion, a single dose of activated charcoal at 1–2 g/kg body wt is indicated. Whenever administering activated charcoal, the clinician must remain aware of the risk of aspiration or hypernatremia secondary to fluid shift into the gut. The clinical signs of acute hypernatremia may mimic those seen with bromethalin toxicosis.

Diazepam, barbiturates, and other anticonvulsant medications should be used to control seizures and other CNS signs. Full recovery may require days to weeks of treatment.

At a bromethalin dosage of 0.5–0.75 mg/kg in dogs, or 0.1–0.3 mg/kg in cats, an initial dose of activated charcoal at 1–2 g/kg body wt should be considered. A repeat dose at half the original dose at 8-hr intervals for a total of three doses can be administered, again being aware of and monitoring for possible hypernatremia.

At a bromethalin dosage of ≥0.75 mg/kg in dogs, or ≥0.3 mg/kg in cats, administration of six doses of activated charcoal over 48 hr (repeat every 8 hr) can be considered to reduce the body burden by interrupting enterohepatic recirculation.

Use of mannitol and corticosteroids has been suggested to treat clinical signs, because they may help manage cerebral edema due to other causes. However, this has not been shown to be very helpful, likely because of the presence of intra-myelin edema. Diazepam, barbiturates, and other anticonvulsant medications should be used to control seizures and other CNS signs. Full recovery may require days to weeks of treatment.

Enter your email address for a free PDF of this article including its images.

Enter your Email Address

My Favorite Amazon Recommendations

Items and content will not show in "Reader View" check your browser.

This is The LCD Screen Scope
We Did The Tutorial With. I did a twenty page tutorial (Here's the tutorial) with video, audio, images and even little parasite movies to show you how to use a microscope. 

This Filter is Good For BIG Dirty Tanks
I've been wrestling with water quality with the turtles. The sponges work GREAT, but in THOSE turtle systems where they eat MICE the poops are bulky. This filter can handle it. In "Tortu's" tank, it's got an 800 gph pump and it rocks. 

PraziPro for Flukes
They nailed it. Figured out the solubility and worked out the dosing. It works. 

Buy Some Good Koi?
No, this isn't really for the 'high end' collector y'all. But for someone who isn't near a decent garden center, here are "good-to-quite-good" Koi you will like at a very good price. I know these guys personally.

Best Food, Ever
It's made for (and I discovered it for) my Blood Parrots but the small size, intense color enhancers and excellent formulation make it superb young-Koi food. Oh, and it's AMAZING on color-cichlids like Flowerhorn and Blood Parrots. 

Pro Air 60 Aerator is a VERY high output air pump pushing my whole fish room (17+ drops), and I have one at home driving everything there, and I have one as a back up. 

Formalin Malachite (Not dilute)
There are formalin malachite preparations at 10%, 22% and 37%. There's economy in the concentrates. Hard to get Prime shipping because air transport is curtailed. This is a good value on 32 ounces. 

Topical For Koi and Pond Fish Ulcers
I like 7% tincture of iodine because it stains but it's hard to hurt anything with it. Used with a WOVEN gauze, this works well to clean and disinfect a wound. Only use ONCE. Do not 'repeatedly' scrub wounds. 

Confectioner's Glaze 
Is the way to bind a medication to fish food. Gone are the days of paste food and oil. The write up is done, it's RIGHT HERE.

Koi Health & Disease
Hopefully this link takes you to the newest edition by PRIME to get it to your house the fastest. 

I have over ten of these Titanium Heaters in my fish room and at home. They're a paradigm shift in aquarium heating. They're titanium and 400W for under $30! Whaaaaaaaaat?

CyroPro by Hikari is safe and easy for Anchor Worms and Fish Lice.

Whatever heaters you use, back yourself up with a temperature controller, it'll turn on, and off your heaters. If your heater seizes "on" at least the thermostat will stop a tragedy. 

LifeGuard by Tetra is a tablet version of a tame 'chloramine-t' or 'halamid' compound that's easy to get and good on bacterial infections, in baths. 

Antimicrobial
If you're making medicated feed for a larger group of fish, this will come in handy. Dosing is available in the site. 

For me, filtration-of-choice
For aquariums, even small Koi holding facilities or small ponds. These sponge filters are cheap, easy to clean, and they clear hazes very well when used with some Accuclear or similar.

Rubber sided, round, nettable tanks
Make great hospital or quarantine facilities. They SHOULD cost about $200-300 depending on size, but this, lower quality unit (while panned in some reviews) may be good. Don't overfill and make sure it's propped up.

1200 Watt heater, on a thermostat held securely above the waterline, works GREAT as a large tank heater. That's all I'll say because there's risk of electrocution and all that. But then, even in a bucket you could get killed. Sound like fun?
I have several of these ALLIED PRECISION stainless ones that are a couple years old. Working still. 

Potassium Permanganate 
500 grams could be a lifetime supply but it's 50% more than the 100g cost wise, for 500% more amount. Dosing is in the site and the book.

What Does Ajax Eat?
I looked for something well formulated, with meat as the first ingredient. Something UNDER $2/lb and something they could deliver for free. And this was it. He looks and feels great on it.